Nutrient Glossary T
Tapioca starch: Tapioca starch is an easily digested starchy polysaccharide extracted from the root of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant. Tapioca is often used in pudding and as a thickener/stabilizer in food products. It can withstand long cooking times without breaking down. Tapioca becomes clear and gel-like when cooked and dissolves completely when used as a thickener.
Taurine: An amino acid found primarily in the brain and the eye. It may aid in stabilizing cells and tissues through its antioxidative properties, and in protecting the nervous system. It may a play a role in physiologic functions involved in detoxification in the cells of the body as well as helps maintain blood lipid levels and stabilizing blood platelets.
Black tea extract - See: Tea (leaf - Camellia sinensis)
Green tea extract - See: Tea (leaf - Camellia sinensis)
Oolong tea extract - See: Tea (leaf - Camellia sinensis)
White tea extract - See: Tea (leaf - Camellia sinensis)
Tea (leaf - Camellia sinensis): There are three principal types of manufactured tea, namely black (fully fermented), green (unfermented), and oolong (partially fermented). The term "fermentation" refers to the oxidative transformations undergone by tea phenolics involving natural browning reactions induced by oxidizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidases) within the plant cell. The manufacture of black tea ensues oxidation of fresh tea leaf components, due to the activation of polyphenol oxidases, which oxidize susceptible tea leaf polyphenol moieties culminating in the formation of brown pigments, and this process develops the color and aroma of the liquid. The production of green tea comprises the rolling and steaming of tender tea leaves, a process that minimizes the activation of enzymes and consequently oxidation. Oolong tea is a partially fermented product having components common to both green and black teas. It contains both native and oxidized catechins, its composition reflecting an intermediate range between that of green and black teas.
Black tea extract - Standardized for theaflavin, (leaf - Camellia sinensis): Black tea is a fully fermented preparation of tea leaves. During the manufacture of black tea, a major proportion of monomeric free catechins in the fresh green tea leaf undergoes oxidative changes culminating in the generation of a series of compounds, including bisflavanols, theaflavins, epitheaflavic acids, and thearubigins, which impart the characteristic taste and color properties of black tea. This extract is a source of theaflavins and other ingredients, which are oxidized catechins. The theaflavins exhibit a number of pharmacological actions in cells, which have implications for enhancing metabolic rate. Black tea also contains some native (unoxidized) catechins.
Black tea extracts exhibits anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects in animals. The oral administration of a black tea extract resulted in a decrease in body and liver weight gain and food intake in rats. The administration of a black tea extract as a drink attenuated plasma triacylglycerol levels and induced reduction in weight gain in sucrose fed rats. Pu-Erh black tea (products of Yunnan district, China) consumption caused a reduction in plasma triacylglycerol levels in rats ingesting this tea extract. This tea appears to stimulate lipolysis in the adipose tissue, and thus could have an effect in inducing weight loss. Black tea enhances vasodilation and blood flow in human subjects, an action with implications for lipolysis. Studies have documented that black tea ingestion reduces triacylglycerol in human subjects carrying specific alleles. Gallic acid present in black tea extract suppresses food intake in animals. Black tea components such as theaflavins, modulates AP1 (activator protein 1), a nuclear binding protein (transcription factor), an action relevant to weight loss. They also inhibit IkappaB kinase (IKK), an enzyme activity implicated in the promotion of obesity.
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Green tea extract - Standardized to polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). (leaf - Camellia sinensis): Green tea is an herb that differs from black and oolong teas because it is not fermented, steaming fresh leaves at high temperatures produces the extract. It contains multiple polyphenols, flavanols and catechins, and is a source of one of the highest levels of organically bound fluorine, a key mineral for bone health. Green tea may serve as an antioxidant by reducing oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. It also provides a source of energy.
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Oolong tea extract - Standardized to polyphenols. (leaf - Camellia sinensis): The characteristic that separates oolong tea from green tea and black tea is that it is partially fermented. Green tea is unfermented and black tea is fully fermented. Because oolong tea is partially fermented it contains unique levels of tea flavanols commonly referred to as catechins. During the partial fermentation processes, small amounts of polyphenols are formed such as theaflavin. Oolong tea has both the active catechin components of unfermented green tea and the fermented black tea polyphenols.
Oolong tea is able to support energy levels, support lipolysis and provide antioxidant activity through its unique combination of catechins and polyphenols. Oolong tea increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation. It appears to suppress food intake and weight gain based on experimental animal studies.
A water extract of oolong tea prevented the obesity and fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet in mice. This extract of oolong tea, in concert with caffeine, accentuated norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in isolated fat cells. The consumption of oolong tea over a 6-week period resulted in significant weight loss in women, thus exemplifying the clinical efficacy of oolong tea. The consumption of oolong tea promoted energy expenditure and fat oxidation in human subjects. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase, which inactivates catecholamines.
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White tea extract - Standardized to polyphenols. (leaf - Camellia sinensis): White tea extract is derived from unfermented tea leaves and young and tender tea buds. It is a source of flavan compounds, which are known as tea catechins. The principal catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and other tea catechins are potent antioxidants and display immunomodulatory effects in experimental animals. The oral administration of tea catechins and caffeine to human subjects stimulated energy expenditure and fat oxidation, thus indicating the potential of tea components to influence body weight and body composition. Human studies report that ingestion of a mixture of tea catechins in the absence of caffeine promotes weight reduction. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activities of gastric and pancreatic lipases, an action with possible implications for attenuating fat accretion. Evidence indicates that EGCG is an immune enhancer. Tea components activate lymphocytes (T-cells) associated with immune function enhancement and stimulate their proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. Tea catechins induce apoptosis, modulate cell signaling and regulate cell cycle events. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase, which inactivates catecholamines.
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L-Theanine: It is the most prominent amino acid present in tea leaves. It is an amino acid unique to tea. L-Theanine is derived from the amino acid L-glutamic acid. It is believed to confer a relaxation effect on humans and has antioxidant activity. L-Theanine is a precursor of ethylamine, an antigen, considered to have a beneficial immune effect.
Tulsi extract - Standardized for ursolic acid (leaf - Ocimum sanctum): Tulsi is native to India, where it is grown as an aromatic perennial flowering shrub, and it has been used for thousands of years in treating a wide range of health-related conditions. Tulsi is also grown as an annual herb in temperate climates. The fragrance of the leaves is spicy and complex, similar to clove, and after drying, the leaves are often made into a tea. Tulsi is an adaptogenic herb having properties in common with polyphenol containing plants such as ginseng and eleuthero. The results of some studies indicate that O. sanctum induces a state of non-specific increased resistance against a variety of stress-induced biological changes in animals. A limited number of studies have shown that the herb also has a normalizing influence on blood pressure and blood sugar imbalances. Eugenol is one of the active constituents present in O. sanctum and may be responsible for many of the reported beneficial effects.
Turmeric extract – Standardized to curcumin. (root - Curcuma longa): A spice, which contains curcuminoids, a group of bioactive phenolic compounds. The major bioactive curcuminoid, curcumin, is a yellow pigment containing a diferulic acid (diferuloyl methane) derivative. Ferulic acid is ubiquitous in plants and arises from the metabolism of the aromatic amino acids, L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. Curcumin is a potent antioxidant. Evidence indicates that curcumin exhibits a variety of effects beneficial for health and for events that help in potentiating immune function. Curcumin is a modulator of the ubiquitous transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B which is involved in immune regulation.
L-Tyrosine: A non-essential,
sparing amino acid* found in dietary proteins. It is synthesized in
the body from L-phenylalanine, and is believed to improve mental energy
& focus by serving as a precursor for the neurotransmitters epinephrine,
norepinephrine and thyroid hormones.
*Non-essential unless a person has PKU (phenylketonuria), then this amino acid becomes essential.