Advocare Nutrient Glossary S

Nutrient Glossary S

Sage extract - Standardized to polyphenols, (leaf - Salvia officinalis): Sage is a widely used herb and its extracts contain a variety of polyphenols, some of which are also found in tea. The polyphenols in combination with caffeine promote energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Sage constituents possess immunomodulatory effects and its polyphenols exhibit antioxidant effects. The components of sage extracts affect brain cell receptors, which has implications for modulating appetite and food intake.

Sage possesses liver protective effects and stimulates the digestive tract as well as containing substances with cardioprotective properties. Sage extract has been used as a stimulant and diuretic. Components of sage extracts reduce body weight gain and the accumulation of epididymal fat weight. They suppress pancreatic lipase activity and fat (triglyceride) accretion, which aid in body weight reduction. They also reduce NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB), a transcription factor involved in obesity. Sage also possesses anti-diabetic and insulin-like activities.

Sage has a long history of use as a memory-enhancing agent coupled with cholinergic properties and its extract is reputed to produce cognitive enhancement. Clinical studies show the efficacy of sage extract in improving cognitive function and performance, ascribed to its inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinestrase. Its effects in increasing acetylcholine levels in the brain might have implications for appetite and food intake modulation, since the interactions between acetylcholine and several other neurotransmitters ultimately determine and regulate food intake. Sage extracts influence GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain), receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites in these receptors, which modulate appetite and food intake. GABA plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system.

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Saw palmetto extract – Standardized to fatty acids. (berry - Serenoa repens): An extract of the dried ripe fruit from the American dwarf palm tree, which is found in the coastal areas of Florida and southeastern United States. Fatty acid and sterol constituents of saw palmetto berries are believed to be the biologically active factors. Clinical studies suggest that the extracts improve functional urinary flow. Some of the suggested mechanisms of action include 5a-reductase inhibition, intraprostatic androgen receptor blockade, alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonism, interference with the action of prolactin, diminution of androgen-binding globulin, and modulation of prostate cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities (arachidonic acid cascade). Alpha-adrenoceptor and calcium channel blocking activities are believed to reduce the smooth muscle contractions of the bladder sphincter.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Nighttime Muscle Recovery, Prostate Support Men's Health

Schisandra extract – Standardized to schisandrins. (fruit – Schisandra chinensis): A member of the Magnoliaceae family, a woody climbing vine with numerous clusters of bright red berries. It is distributed throughout northern and northeast China and the adjacent regions of Russia and Korea. The major constituents in schisandra are lignans. Schisandra is an adaptogenic plant used for increasing resistance to stress, increasing energy levels, physical performance and endurance. It improves liver function and is also used as a liver protectant. Schisandra has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (See Adaptogen)

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: V-16 Caffeine Free Energy Drink

Selenium: An essential mineral involved in factors mediating the formation of thyroid hormone. Selenium is also part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase that serves to protect proteins, cell membranes, lipids, and nucleic acids from oxidative stress in tissues and cells.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Prostate Support Men's Health

Senna extract – Standardized to sennosides. (leaf – Cassia angustifolia): Contains the anthroquinones, sennosides A & B, that appear during the drying process of the extract. Sennosides cause contraction of the colon lining, providing a laxative effect. Senna should only be consumed occasionally, not on a daily basis.

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Shave grass extract – Standardized to silica. (aerial – Equisetum arvense): Also known as the horsetail plant, this member of the fern family grows in wet to moderately dry areas mostly in the Northern hemisphere. The high levels of silicon and other minerals found in this plant help support the use of calcium in the body and play a role in the production of skin and connective tissue.

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Shiitake mushroom extract – Standardized to polysaccharides. (fruiting body - Lentinus edodes): Shiitake and related edible mushroom are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties. Polysaccharides enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro, and act as biological response modifiers. The polysaccharides are believed to be multi-cytokine inducers that induce gene expression of various immunomodulatory cytokines (proteins produced by cells) and cytokine receptors.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: ImmunoGuard Immune System Supplement

Silicon: A trace mineral. In the body silicon is associated with growth and development of bone, connective tissue and cartilage. Silicon is required for synthesis of L-proline and L-hydroxyproline, which are a part of the primary structure of collagen. It is also needed for the production of glycosaminoglycans.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Calcium Plus

Skullcap extract – Standardized to baicalin. (root - Scutellaria baicalensis): A traditional herb used extensively in China that contains a pharmacologically active ingredient, baicalein, in a sugar-bound form, baicalin. The components of this extract are believed to possess immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

Sodium: One of the most abundant minerals in the body. Sodium chloride or salt is important in many ways. It is an essential part of the diet of both humans and animals and is a part of most bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat, and tears. It aids digestion by providing chlorine for hydrochloric acid, a small but essential part of human digestive fluid. Sodium chloride is essential to life on Earth. Most biological tissues and body fluids contain a varying amount of salt. The concentration of sodium ions in the blood is directly related to the regulation of safe body-fluid levels. Propagation of nerve impulses by signal transduction is regulated by sodium ions.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Fuel, Rehydrate Sports Drink

Soybeans (Roasted) / Soy protein isolate: The soybean is an annual leguminous plant (Glycine max), widely cultivated for forage and soil improvement and for its nutritious seeds. Soybeans are used to produce a wide variety of products including tofu (soybean curd), soybean oil, soy flour, soymilk and soy sauce. The soybean provides what is considered a complete protein because it includes all nine essential amino acids. Soybeans are rich in many naturally occurring phytonutrients including isoflavones and saponins.

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Soy lecithin: Lecithin plays a number of roles in heart health, including the lowering of total and LDL cholesterol levels. The choline delivered by lecithin can help reduce high homocysteine levels in the blood - which can be associated with artery damage, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and bone fracture.

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Sucralose: Sucralose is a potent non-caloric sweetener that is a heat stable derivative of sucrose. It is also known by the trade name Splenda. It is 500-700 times sweeter than sucrose and has been extensively researched to establish its safety profile. It was first approved for use in Canada (where it has sometimes been marketed as Splendar) in 1991. Subsequent approvals came in Australia in 1993, in New Zealand in 1996, in the United States in 1998, and in the European Union in 2004. The safety of sucralose has been confirmed by leading medical, scientific and regulatory authorities around the world including; the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Joint (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization) Expert Committee on Food Additives, European Commission's Scientific Committee on Food, Health Canada and Food Standards Australia/New Zealand. As of 2005, it has been approved in over 40 countries, including Canada, Brazil, China, and Japan.

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Sugar: A sweet crystalline or powdered substance, white when pure, most commonly consisting of sucrose obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beets and used in many foods, drinks, and medicines to improve their taste. Also called table sugar. In addition, sugar can be defined as any of a class of water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, including glucose, fructose, maltose sucrose and lactose, having a characteristically sweet taste and classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides.

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Sugar alcohols (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol): are carbohydrates with a chemical structure that partially resembles sugar and partially resembles alcohol, but they do not contain ethanol as alcoholic beverages do. While they provide a sweetness like sucrose they are slowly and incompletely absorbed and metabolized by the body, and consequently contribute fewer calories. Some sugar alcohols used by AdvoCare include maltitol and lactitol.

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Suma extract – Standardized to saponins. (root – Pfaffia paniculata): Suma is a large ground vine with a deep root system that has a propensity to spread. It can be found in various tropical locations such as the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Three principle active ingredients have been identified in Suma: pfaffic acid, phytosterols (mainly beta-ecdysone), and pfaffosides (saponins). Beta-ecdysone is a plant phytosteroid hormone found to enhance protein biosynthesis and other anabolic (rebuilding) activities in animals. In addition beta-Ecdysone has shown analgesic and anti-diabetic activities in human studies

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Strength