Advocare Nutrient Glossary C - D

Nutrient Glossary C- D

Caffeine: A trimethylxanthine alkaloid derived primarily from coffee and tea. It exhibits stimulatory actions in the central nervous system and muscles, and enhances mental energy and focus. Caffeine promotes alertness and focus by increasing norepinephrine excretion and enhancing neural activity. Many of its effects are due to its competitive antagonism of adenosine receptors.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Fuel, Spark Energy Drink, Coffeccino Energy Drink

Calcium: A major mineral for bone health along with calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Calcium is essential for developing and maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It also assists in blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Calcium is a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Calcium Plus, Muscle Gain Protein, Post Workout Muscle Recovery, Rehydrate Sports Drink

Calcium caseinate: A high protein, high calcium nutrient derived from milk. Caseinates aggregate in the stomach so that the protein peptides and amino acids pass more slowly through the gut, which enhances a feeling of satiety while prolonging the supply of nitrogen to the muscle tissue.

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Carrageenan: Carrageenan is the name given to a family of hydrocolloid polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds. This plant based gum serves as both a thickener and an aid in moisture retention.

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Carbohydrates: The basic building block of a carbohydrate is a sugar molecule, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. They provide the body with the fuel it needs for physical activity and for proper organ function. Carbohydrates come in a variety of forms. The most common and abundant are sugars, fibers, and starches.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Gain Protein, Post Workout Muscle Recovery

L-Carnitine: Is essential for the transport of fatty acids into the cellular organelle, mitochondrion, for conversion into energy by oxidation. It has a structure similar to that of amino acids and is formed from L-lysine and L-methionine.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: MNS Max Appetite Control Supplement

L-Carnosine: L-Carnosine is a dipeptide consisting of of ß-alanine linked at its carboxyl terminus to the amino group of L-histidine (ß-alanyl-L-histidine). It is synthesized by the enzyme carnosine synthetase, and broken down by carnosinase. It is widely distributed in tissues, and is present at particularly high concentrations in skeletal muscle and the olfactory lobe of the brain. Carnosine has a number of important properties, including antioxidant activity, ability to chelate divalent cations such as copper, neutralization of acids (such as lactic acid), and the inhibition of nonenzymic glycosylation of proteins. It is found in long-lived tissues in surprisingly high amounts (up to 20 mM in human muscle) and has been shown to delay aging in cultured cells. When added to cultures of human lung and foreskin fibroblasts, the dipeptide extended cell survival and increased maximal cell division potential while also inducing a more juvenile phenotype in senescent human and rodent cells. This suggests that other properties of the dipeptide are involved. There are suggestions that the concentration of tissue-associated L-carnosine declines with age. L-Carnosine and related dipeptides have been shown to prevent peroxidation of model membrane systems, suggesting that they represent water-soluble counterparts to lipid-soluble antioxidants such as a-tocopherol in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. Other roles ascribed to this dipeptide include acting as a neurotransmitter in the modulation of enzyme activities.

L-Carnosine significantly reduces the formation of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OH dG) in cultured cells, thus demonstrating protection of DNA. The presumptive anti-senescent effect of L-carnosine may be related to this inhibition. L-Carnosine also inhibits protein carbonyl formation. A common molecular indication of cellular aging is the accumulation of aberrant proteins, especially polypeptides bearing carbonyl (CO) groups.

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Casein (Modified): A well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cow's milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is an efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the inorganic elements calcium and phosphorus.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Post Workout Muscle Recovery

Chamomile (flower - Matricaria chamomilla): German chamomile is a sweet-scented, smooth, branched annual growing to 2 1/2 ft. in height. It is native to Europe and Western Asia, and has become widely naturalized in the U.S. Chamomiles have been used for centuries in teas as a mild, relaxing sleep aid, treatment for fevers, colds, stomach ailments, and as an anti-inflammatory, to name only a few therapeutic uses.

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Chaste tree extract – Standardized to agnusides. (berry - Vitex agnus-castus): Indigenous to the Mediterranean, chaste tree now grows throughout the world in subtropical climates. Chaste tree berry extract helps normalize hormones levels, which eases the effects of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and sweating.

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Chitosan: Is derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans. Chitosan is produced by grinding shells from shellfish such as shrimp, lobster and crabs into a very fine powder. This powder is then deacetylated, or stripped of specific chemical groups that allow the compound to have polar binding sites and high absorbability. Chitosan is known for its ability to bind fats, oils and bile acids and increase excretion of these materials.

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Cholecalciferol:( See Vitamin D)

Choline: Chemically is trimethylethanolamine. Aids in the formation of a number of important substances in the body essential for nerve function and protection, muscle control, memory, and many other functions. Utilized for producing important constituents (phospholipids) involved in brain and heart functions and energy utilization. A building block for acetylcholine, a key brain chemical involved in memory, mental processes and nerve as well as muscle functions. Serves as a methyl donor in one carbon metabolism.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Spark Energy Drink

Chromium: An essential trace element involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It primarily increases the efficiency of insulin. Supplemental chromium administered to individuals with impaired glucose tolerance leads to improved blood glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. It appears to improve lean muscle mass in humans. Response to chromium is dependent upon the form and the amount of supplemental chromium. Human studies suggest that certain forms of chromium decrease insulin levels and improve glucose disposal in obese populations. In one study, a high chromium supplementation with exercise decreased total cholesterol in human volunteers.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Fuel, Post Workout Muscle Recovery, Rehydrate Sports Drink, Coffeccino Energy Drink

Citrus flavonoids: Flavonoids comprise a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in plants. They have been categorized into six families based on their chemical structures. These families are chalcones, flavones, flavonols, flavanones, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids. Flavonoids from citrus fruits include rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, and naringin. These flavonoid compounds have shown antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vitamin C sparing action, beneficial effects on blood flow and anti-allergenic interactions with immune cells.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Vitamin C Grams, MNS Max Appetite Control Supplement

L-Citrulline: An amino acid that is not normally present in protein. L-Citrulline is created in the body as an intermediate in the conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-arginine in a metabolic pathway called the urea cycle. L-Citrulline was first isolated from watermelon. The term citrulline was coined from citrullus, the Latin name of the watermelon.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Fuel

Cocoa: Cocoa is a fine-textured chocolate powder that is made from ground roasted cocao beans with most of the fat removed.

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Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10): A quinone coenzyme with an isoprenoid tail. Also known as ubiquinone. Found virtually in all body cell membranes and energy compartments. The conversion of energy from carbohydrates and fats to ATP, the form of energy used by cells in the body, requires the presence of coenzyme Q. By functioning as an antioxidant, may protect tissue components by neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species produced during the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: MNS Max Appetite Control Supplement

Coleus extract – Standardized to forskohlin. (root - Coleus forskohlii): The active ingredient found in coleus extract is forskohlin. Forskohlin may help increase lean body mass and help reduce body fat during periods of exercise. This ingredient also helps support lipolysis. Lipolysis is breakdown of fats to be used as fuel in the body. Forskohlin stimulates and activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase resulting in production of cyclic AMP.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: MNS Max Energy Supplement

Copper: Copper is an essential mineral that is an integral part of numerous enzyme systems involved in health. Plays a role in iron metabolism, melanin synthesis, and central nervous system function, the synthesis and cross-linking of elastin and collagen, bone formation, and skeletal mineralization.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Calcium Plus

Cranberry juice powder (fruit – Vaccinium macrocarpon): Traditionally used to ease effects of and prevent urinary tract infections. Contains proanthocyanidins that interfere with the bacterial adherence to the urinary tract that causes urinary tract infections. Other properties included acting as a mild diuretic and urinary deodorizer.

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Creatine: A nitrogenous organic acid synthesized from the amino acids glycine, L-arginine, and L-methionine that is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates mainly in the form of phosphocreatine and which supplies energy for muscle contraction. Plays a very important part in cell energy production and increases both total and fat-free body mass.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Fuel, Post Workout Muscle Recovery Shakes

Cyanocobalamin:( See Vitamin B-12)

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Digestive Enzymes: Include pancreatic enzymes, plant-derived enzymes, and fungal-derived enzymes, which comprise three classes of enzymes: proteolytic enzymes needed to digest protein, lipases needed to digest fat, and amylases needed to digest carbohydrates. Digestive enzymes improve absorption of food and facilitate digestive processes. Examples of plant based digestive enzymes include:

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Papain: An enzyme extracted from the unripe fruit of the papaya ( Carica papaya) that catalyzes the lysis of proteins, and is used as a digestive aid.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Gain Protein, Digest-ease Digestive Support Supplement

Bromelain: Found most commonly in the stem of the pineapple plant ( Ananas comosus). It is a mixture of sulfur-containing proteolytic enzymes or proteases. It also contains several other substances in smaller quantities, including perioxidase, acid phosphatase, protease inhibitors, and calcium.

Products with a good source of this Nutrient: Muscle Gain, Digest-ease Digestive Support Supplement

: A naturally occurring terpene found in orange peel and citrus fruits. It is a major aroma component of essential oils obtained from orange, grape fruit, lemon, dried fruits of black pepper, and white and black pepper. It is considered to possess relaxation effects based on experimental animal studies. It inhibits the production of cholesterol and improves immune response in experimental animals. d-Limonene has been shown in clinical studies to possess antineoplastic activity.

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Dong quai extract (root - Angelica polymorpha): An aromatic, perennial flowering plant found growing at high altitudes in the mountains of Japan, Korea and China. It has been used in Asia for thousands of years to help with a woman’s overall health and feeling of well-being. Shown to support urinary tract health, as well as easing menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes.

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Dry bean extract – Standardized to phaseolamin. (seed – Phaseolus vulgaris): A source of the pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitor, alpha AI found in many types of beans such as the Great White Northern Kidney Bean. Alpha amylase is an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of starch. This product is therefore useful in slowing the metabolism of starch to glucose and thus helps moderate blood sugar levels in the normal range.

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